Sunday, August 26, 2007

What is the truth? - Text in English - حقیقت چیه ؟ - متن بزبان انگلیسی


ارسال: آی حان
The language of pre-Turkic Iranian Azerbaijan was a dialect of Persian.[1] Strabo mentions that the people of Iranian Azarbaijan as Iranians who spoke Persian. Also, medieval historians and scholars also record that the language of the region, as well as its people, were Iranians who spoke an Iranian language. Al-Istakhri, Al-Masudi, Ibn al-Nadim, Tabari, Ibn Hawqal, Istakhri, Moqaddasi,[2][3] Yaghubi, Masudi, Mostowfi Qazvini, and Al-Khwarizmi.
Ibn al-Nadim, in his famous book Kitab al-Fihrist (Arabic: الفهرست), mentions that all the Median and Persian lands of antiquity (including what is today known as the Republic of Azerbaijan) spoke one language. Al-Khwarizmi mentions it in chapter 6, vol. 6 of his book Mafātīh al-ˤUlūm (مفاتیح العلوم). Tabari in 849 also mentions that poets in Maragheh recited Pahlavi (Old Persian) poetry.

Some Azerbaijani poets however, such as Qatran Tabrizi, used the word "Persian" and "Pahlavi" interchangeably to describe their native language. Azari researcher Ahmad Kasravi Tabrizi in his book "The ancient tongue of Azarbaygan" (زبان باستان آذربایگان) supports this and reports that the medieval historian Yaqut al-Hamawi used the phrase Al-Ajam ol-Azariyah ("The Azari Iranian") in his books Mo'ajjem al-Udabā and Mo'jem al-Baladān. In other sources such as Surat al-Ardh (صورة الأرض) by Ibn Hawqal, Ahsan al-Taqāsim by Moqaddasi, and Al-Masālik wa al-Mamālik by Istakhri, people in Azerbaijan are recorded to be speaking Iranian languages. Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa identifies the Iranian languages as such:
"The Iranian languages are Fahlavi (Pahlavi), Dari, Khuzi, Persian, and Seryani
. But Fahlavi comes from the word Fahleh. And Fahleh is a name that refers to 5 regions: Isfahan, Ray, Hamedan, Mah-Nahavand, and Azerbaijan."
Even after the Turkic invasions and subsequent Turkification of the area, which lasted several centuries, travelers and scholars cited Persian being used up to the 17th century in Tabriz. Even the Ottoman Turkish explorer Evliya Çelebi (1611–1682) mentions this in his Seyahatname. He also reports that the elite and learned people of Nakhichevan and Maragheh spoke Pahlavi, during his tours of the region. Additionally, the old Pahlavi based language of Azerbaijan is now extinct.
Also, the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, published in 1890, writes that Azeri's are only linguistically Turkic and Iranians by race:
“ some scholars (Yadrintsev, Kharuzin, Shantr) suggested to change the terminology of some Turko-Tatar people, who somatically don’t have much in common with Turks, for instance, to call Aderbaijani Tatars (Iranians by race) Aderbaijans.[4]
” The book Man, published in 1901, comes to the same conclusion:
“ It does not, of course, follow that such tribes may not be mainly Iranian in blood, as the Turkish-speaking Azerbaijani Tatars have been shown to be, but the persistence of foreign languages among tribal communities is not a factor to be neglected.”[5]
Encyclopaedia Iranica also states:
“The Turkish speakers of Azerbaijan (q.v.) are mainly descended from the earlier Iranian speakers, several pockets of whom still exist in the region.[6]
”Moreover, according to Grand Dictionnaire Encyclopedique Larousse:
“Azeris are descendants of older Iranophone inhabitants of the Eastern Transcaucasia, turkicized since 11th century.[7]

Place names, culture, and archaeological evidence

No comments:

Post a Comment